Quotas are limited for a number of sensitive products, such as beef, pork and sweet corn, entering the EU and for dairy products entering Canada. All imports from Canada must comply with EU rules and regulations. For example, only hormone-free meat is ever imported into the EU. Over the years, Ireland has developed a significant export of pork to Canada and there is now potential to develop exports of Irish beef and lamb. The abolition of the 26.5% Canadian import duty on Irish beef will be significant. The EU is still taking the risk of negotiating CETA with Canada. The legal validity of the provinces` commitment to implementing an agreement is unclear. What kind of legal action would the EU have if one or more provinces refused to implement parts of the agreement? Since I am not a lawyer, I cannot answer this question, but I am sure that EU negotiators are trying to include as many safeguards as possible in the agreement (particularly in the dispute settlement mechanism) to deal with this risk. These guarantees are just as important to Canada. The last thing Canada wants is for the EU to impose ad hoc trade and investment sanctions because a province does not implement cetA. What does it mean that such remedial measures would only apply to the non-cooperative province? Ultimately, the passage of a province could end the entire agreement. Such uncertainties would be very bad for the economy. If CETA`s objective is to increase trade and investment, it would be best to eliminate as much uncertainty as possible upstream, as the economy hates the legal vacuum.
Otherwise, to paraphrase W.P. Kinsella, even if we build it, they can`t come. In 2008, an EU-Australia partnership framework was adopted, which removes trade barriers but is not a free trade agreement. “It`s very difficult to negotiate even a Canadian model agreement in less than 10 months,” Henig said. “It took several years to conclude the trade agreement with Canada. And the beginning of these negotiations is not going very well. The EU and the UK do not speak the same language, which makes it particularly difficult. The most important thing is that there is no “off-the-shelf” version of the Canadian agreement. The EU has made it clear that it expects the UK to engage in level playing field in areas such as workers` rights and environmental protection, in order to prevent the UK from undermining the EU. The TRADE agreement BETWEEN the EU and Canada has far less ambitious provisions in these areas, and its dispute settlement mechanism to enforce these provisions is a far cry from the “robust” police instruments that the EU intends to put in place in its UK agreement to avoid “competition or copycats”. Negotiations ended in August 2014.
All 28 EU member states have approved the final text of CETA, with Belgium being the last country to give its approval.  Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada, travelled to Brussels on October 30, 2016 to sign on behalf of Canada.  The European Parliament approved the agreement on 15 February 2017.  The agreement is subject to ratification by the EU and national lawmakers.   It could only come into force if, at Belgium`s request, the European Court of Justice had not issued a negative opinion on the dispute settlement mechanism.  In its opinion, the European Court of Justice found that the dispute settlement mechanism was in line with EU law.  Until it enters into formal force, the essential parts apply on an interim basis from 21 September 2017.  Another example of Canadian trade barriers is public procurement.